Everything you want to know about farmed fish

01 Quality of framed fish
02 Farmed vs. wild fish & best practices
03 Fish feed
04 Welfare
05 Use of pharmaceutical substances
06 Environment
07 Area of organized aquaculture development (AOAD)
08 Regarding the “seaspiracy” documentary


Quality of
framed fish

Farmed fish are absolutely healthy and, in many cases, the freshest fish consumers can obtain. The fact that they are harvested to order often makes them even fresher than wild-caught fish. Additionally, they are safer in terms of origin because they are raised in a controlled environment.

They contain about 170 calories per 100 grams and have an average fat content of 9%, whereas their pelagic counterparts have a fat content of 2%, and other types of fish can range up to 15%, such as salmon, herring, sardines, hake, tuna, and mackerel. The fat found in fish, omega-3 fatty acids, belongs to the so-called “good” fats, which are proven to be beneficial for the body, especially for the heart.

Along with providing amino acids and fats, fish provide us with a plethora of vitamins and minerals, such as vitamins A and D, as well as those from the B complex (B1, B2, B3, and B12), while the essential minerals and trace elements found in fish and seafood are calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and iodine. Therefore, farmed fish are an excellent choice within the context of a healthy diet, under strict quality standards.

Farmed fish are nutritionally equivalent and have a higher content of omega-3 fatty acids compared to pelagic fish. They are available in less than 24 hours from being caught to the sales counter because they are harvested to order.

Additionally, they maintain consistent quality throughout the year and competitive pricing. Farmed fish are proven to be fresh as they are caught to order. Once the order is placed, the fish are harvested, and the process of packaging and transportation begins. This entire process ensures that the fish will arrive fresh in the hands of the consumer.

The checks conducted on farmed fish are continuous and numerous. In addition to the fish themselves, the farming waters, feeds, and surfaces they come into contact with are also checked. Independent bodies, official inspections by Public Authorities, and universities monitor the processes, all of which are certified. All of the above serve as a quality guarantee and ensure the final consumer’s safety.


Farmed vs. wild
fish & best practices

From the time of hatching until they are harvested, it takes approximately 2 years (22-26 months depending on the farming area and the time of year)

Many studies have demonstrated the value of fatty acids from fish in our diet. Comparing farmed fish to wild-caught fish, we find that farmed fish have higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids than their wild counterparts.

Farmed fish are undoubtedly the freshest fish consumers can purchase because they are caught on demand for a specific quantity, harvested in special tanks with ice and water, and immediately undergo the packaging process (in state-of-the-art automated packaging facilities and under strict hygiene standards), followed by transportation in specialized refrigerated trucks to local markets

From the moment of their catch and onwards, within a few hours, the fish are available in stores.

Farmed fish are safe in terms of origin because they are raised in approved and compatible marine aquaculture environments, under controlled conditions, supervised by specialized scientists (ichthyologists, veterinarians), and under strict quality standards. Fish are traditionally caught using nets and immediately placed in tanks with controlled chilled seawater and ice.

Due to the significant temperature difference, mortality occurs. Throughout this process, the so-called “cold chain” is maintained, meaning the fish (which is an extremely perishable product) is kept chilled at the appropriate temperatures, resulting in it remaining unchanged and extremely fresh, reaching the supermarket or fishmonger’s counter in a state of extra freshness shortly after being caught. All this information is stated on the traceability label of the box containing the fish and is used during their commercial distribution. Thus, the consumer can know exactly when a fish was caught, where it was packaged, and can contact the source directly.

Traceability is a method applied in the cultivation of fish that requires the recording of detailed information at all stages of the product’s production, such as its birth, growth in the sea, diet, packaging, and shipment to the final point of sale. Through traceability, the consumer can know the “history” of each fish from its birth to the store, ensuring for themselves and their family a safe and nutritionally valuable food.

The differences lie in their organic certification regarding the certified origin of their ingredients and the certification of these ingredients themselves. This means that the plant-based ingredients of their fish feed are organic, that the remaining raw materials of these feeds are certified to have been obtained using Sustainable Practices, and that the applied method of cultivating these fish ultimately adheres to certified Good Organic Production Practices.


Fish feed

Farmed fish are fed with fully balanced fish feeds that have a composition similar to the dietary habits of each fish species in nature. Fish feeds provide the necessary proteins and fats for the growth of the farmed fish. Fishmeal and fish oil are used as sources of proteins and fats. The production process of the feeds includes the preprocessing of raw materials, mainly fishmeal and fish oil, cereals, the addition of vitamins and minerals (essential for the normal development of fish), and starch for binding the ingredients together. These raw materials are never genetically modified.

The organic ones differ in terms of their feed, origin, and certification. Their fish feed contains organic plant-based ingredients, and the remaining raw materials of these feeds are obtained using sustainable practices and for applied, Good Organic Production Practices as a method of cultivation.

In order to protect marine resources, controlled fisheries are used to produce fishmeal and fish oil for fish feed. These are derived from the processing (thermal treatment and grinding) of certain pelagic fish species mainly caught in the South Pacific and North Atlantic. These fish species form huge populations, reproduce rapidly and in large numbers, grow quickly, and have a short lifespan. They have little commercial value due to the high percentage of bones they contain and are therefore not selected for human consumption. They are caught in large quantities and constitute a significant source of high-quality proteins and fish oil not only for the needs of global aquaculture but also for livestock and poultry farming in general. Consequently, the conversion rate from these wild-caught fish to farmed fish does not exceed 1.2kg/1kg of farmed fish, as there is simultaneous utilization of by-products from the processing of fish suitable for human consumption.

In order to protect the sustainability of the marine environment and biodiversity in fish farming areas, work rules, training, programs, and measurements have been established to prevent fish escapes and to protect marine plants and animals, especially protected species. Any harmful action or activity against wildlife is legally pursued.

The produced fish feeds do not contain fishmeal and/or fish oil derived from species belonging to the categories of vulnerable, threatened, or critically endangered species, according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, nor do they contain ingredients derived from other fish of the same genus.

The fishmeal and fish oil used in fish feeds:

  • Come from fishing grounds covered by an Approved Management Plan for the protection of wild populations from extinction.

  • In combination with fishmeal and fish oil, flours from soy, corn, and wheat crops are used. The feeds are supplemented with trace elements and vitamins to fully meet the nutritional needs of the fish.

  • They do not contain Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs).

The conversion rate from wild-caught fish to farmed fish does not exceed 1.2kg/1kg of farmed fish because there is also utilization of by-products from the processing of fish fit for human consumption.

The modern technology and expertise in the fields of fish feed preparation and fish farming ensure stability in maintaining these positive properties in farmed fish.

Specifically, artificial fish feeds primarily consist of fishmeal, which in turn originates from fish with a similar profile of nutrients, proteins, and essential fatty acids. This maintains the valuable properties of fish as food, which in turn determine the composition of farmed fish. Sometimes, farmed fish even have higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids compared to their wild counterparts. Moreover, they maintain consistent quality throughout the year due to daily access to sufficient quantities of food and a balanced diet

It is well known that all animals require dietary proteins, essentially a source of balanced and available amino acids. The decrease in stocks of free-range fish, their variable availability, and the generally high price of high-quality fish meals for various aquaculture applications have led to interest in identifying and developing alternative sources, mainly amino acids (proteins). Progress in production and processing technologies has improved the efficiency of animal by-products, from which high-quality products are obtained under strict supervision as ingredients for feeds.

These products contain significant levels of proteins and oils, providing a ready source of digestible animal proteins and fats. The form and composition of by-products require shaping and modification for effective use and incorporation into feeds to meet the nutritional demands of fish. That is, their nutritional substances, mainly proteins in the form of amino acids, are utilized. The availability of by-products for incorporation into aquafeeds (fish, shrimp) provides producers with additional flexibility in feed formulation and reduces dependency on fish meals. For this reason, they potentially serve as an option for use in aquafeed formulation.



The farmed fish are monitored by a sufficient number of trained personnel with experience in fish biology and the farming system used. They are able to:

(a) recognize whether the fish are in good health
(b) understand the significance of behavioral changes, and
(c) assess the suitability of the overall environment for the welfare of the fish, including their health.

Preventing stress in fish is enhanced by implementing appropriate farming practices to avoid adverse welfare conditions, in accordance with the corresponding pillar for welfare in the Fish From Greece Private Standard Certification.

The fish are managed only by the competent, trained personnel working under the supervision of the producer. The number of fish and production units (such as tanks, etc., located in the same area) is such that, under normal conditions, the producer is able to ensure that the organisms are properly cared for and their well-being is ensured, including their health.

Inspection focuses on factors that negatively affect the welfare of the fish and signs of abnormal behavior, injuries, poor health, or increased mortality, as well as water quality (at least turbidity, oxygen, temperature, pH, and salinity). All relevant legislation and Good Practices are followed. There are written procedures, staff training is conducted, and the matter is subject to control by two pillars in the Fish From Greece Private Standard Certification of ΗΑΠΟ.


Use of pharmaceutical

Aquaculture ensures the prevention and protection of fish from diseases to ensure optimal fish health in facilities. Primarily, fish farming conditions are secured by maintaining an optimal growth environment with fully controlled conditions, thus eliminating all possibilities of their exposure to potential pathogens. However, if a disease does occur and the administration of antibiotics or other pharmaceutical substances is required, this is done only with a veterinarian’s prescription, and all necessary examinations are conducted.

The main pharmaceutical substances used in aquaculture are for disease prevention and protection, primarily consisting of vaccines and immunostimulants. The use of vaccines reduces the incidence of diseases, protects the welfare of farmed fish, and eliminates the need for antibiotics or other drugs. This category of substances poses no danger to consumers, does not accumulate in the fish organism, and is quickly metabolized. Due to the use of vaccines in aquaculture, diseases are now minimal, and there is usually no need for other medications. Vaccines are biological preparations designed to sensitize the organism’s immune system to specific pathogens, allowing it to develop immunity. They are not chemicals, not drugs, and do not harm the organism. Vaccines contain a killed pathogen responsible for a disease, stimulate the immune system to recognize it as foreign, produce antibodies, and protect against the disease.

If a disease occurs, especially in cases where vaccination has not been performed, ONLY antibiotics approved by the National Organization for Medicines (EOF) are used. Their administration is ONLY carried out after a prescription from a veterinarian specialized in fish pathology, and ONLY AFTER the necessary examinations have been conducted.

Not all pharmaceutical substances are absorbed, but in any case, as with other animals intended for human consumption, strict “withdrawal periods” are observed to ensure the complete absence, even traces, of antibiotics from the fish flesh. It should be emphasized here that there is a fundamental differentiation in fish farming compared to terrestrial animals for food production. The specificity lies in the fact that the medium surrounding the fish, seawater, is highly controllable, especially in young ages, which are the most susceptible to diseases. At these ages, fish are still farmed in land-based facilities under strictly controlled conditions, where incoming water undergoes full processing (filtration, UV irradiation), removing all possible pathogens. Transfer to sea farming units occurs at ages where fish are already resistant and additionally vaccinated, resulting in minimal disease incidents and consequently greatly reduced drug use. In any case, fish are harvested only after several weeks have passed to ensure no antibiotic residues remain in their flesh, which is confirmed through regular analyses.

Other pharmaceutical substances such as hormones and growth promoters are not used in fish intended for human consumption. There is no need for such substances aimed at boosting weight gain, as fish, in terms of growth, naturally achieve rapid growth, with a short production cycle and food exploitation levels much better than other farmed species.

The case of formalin:

Formalin is an old commercial name for solutions containing formaldehyde, which has been generalized with the widespread name “formalin” or “formaline”. It was a very old widely used veterinary aqueous dilution solution used as a parasiticide for all kinds of animals and for disinfection. Today, its administration as a veterinary drug is allowed in processed form only when necessary for fish health (external parasites) and only with a veterinary prescription. In this case, a pharmaceutical preparation containing formaldehyde is used, which is authorized by the National Organization for Medicines (EOF). It has an external use and is not absorbed by the fish flesh; hence, legally, no controls are required for residues in the flesh. Formaldehyde itself is a biodegradable substance, and this preparation containing formaldehyde in processed form is permitted for net disinfections but is never allowed to enter the environment as a biocide. If used, after its application, it is drained into biological treatments, and within 24 hours, it has evaporated.



Aquaculture is an activity that depends directly on the marine environment. Therefore, it is in its best interest to safeguard the farmed organisms from any undesirable water quality in the sea and the area in which it operates. The water quality in aquaculture plays a leading role in the success of farming.

The impact of fish farming on water quality is minimal and mainly involves the accumulation of feed residues and waste on the seabed at the location of the cage. In recent years, the EU has funded similar studies and has concluded that the impact is localized, precisely under the unit. It has been clarified that heavy metals or other polluting substances are not used in fish production. Furthermore, legislation does not allow cages to be placed above “seagrass beds,” meaning there is nothing beneath the cages.

Each area has its own environmental profile regarding water quality parameters, and each fish species has its own farming requirements. In every environmental study conducted before the installation of each production unit, it is necessary to include water quality parameters in addition to other measurements.

The marine area below and around the floating facilities is monitored on a daily basis, using analytical methods rather than relying solely on visual inspection, to avoid unduly burdening the environment. Any damage to the environment would have harmful effects on the fish inside the cages, as with all organisms that suffer in unsuitable environments.

To prevent such undesirable outcomes, annual inspections are scheduled, and daily measurements are taken to assess the maintenance of environmental quality both around and beneath the cages. For the objectivity of the measurements, analyses are conducted in external, certified, and reputable laboratories. Additionally, independent entities are called upon to inspect and certify compliance, providing assurance in this regard.

Anything that burdens the environment in which the activity operates is collected, counted, and based on the annual picture, actions are taken to reduce intervention the following year. It has been proven by studies that the marine environment is fully restored within a few months from the removal of aquaculture activity. It is also a fact that aquaculture units in Greece are located in areas with deep waters and currents, resulting in the seabed not being polluted and marine life thriving in it.

All endeavors that contribute to the sustainability of the marine ecosystem and facilitate the ongoing practice of fish farming play a crucial role in sustainable development. Such efforts involve preventing activities that may harm the marine, terrestrial, atmospheric, and societal environments. Monitoring greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide, which are detrimental to the environment, forms an integral part of planning and executing strategies to mitigate their impact. These plans also encompass the removal of pollutants originating from aquaculture activities, including plastics, wood, machinery maintenance products, chemical/oil discharges, and animal by-products, through recycling and ecologically sound management practices.

Ensuring the stability of aquaculture facilities and equipment is another critical aspect of planning, necessitating comprehensive studies before installation, along with regular assessments to gauge their durability. These measures, along with others, are proactively implemented to prevent fish from escaping cages and adversely affecting natural marine biodiversity. Specific measures to safeguard sea biodiversity include workplace regulations, training programs, and frequent monitoring to prevent farmed fish from escaping and protect phytoplankton, as well as terrestrial or marine animals, such as seabirds, especially those classified as endangered. Any actions or activities detrimental to wildlife are strictly prohibited.

Social Environment: Farmed fish are often a more affordable source of protein compared to other animal species and contain a higher concentration of essential nutrients for human consumption. Produced locally, they enhance food security in specific regions while also serving as a source of employment and income for local communities, thereby positively impacting the social and human environment. Farmed marine fish constitute a significant portion of Greece’s food and beverage exports in terms of quantity and potential, contributing to the country’s wealth creation. Globally, aquaculture-produced seafood accounts for 15-20% of protein consumption for 2.9 billion people, further underlining its importance.

Carbon Footprint: Energy efficiency has emerged as a crucial environmental parameter in recent years. In terms of carbon emissions, protein production through aquaculture is much more efficient, i.e., less polluting, than many other forms of protein production. This is also linked to the feed-conversion ratio, which measures the amount of feed required to increase an animal’s body weight by one kilogram. For farmed fish, this ratio is often 1:1 or even lower due to alternative and efficient solutions, such as utilizing fish by-products suitable for human consumption, fisheries by-catch, and fish of low commercial value.

Reduced Pressure on Wild Fisheries: With approximately 3 billion people worldwide relying on wild-caught and farmed seafood as a primary protein source, aquaculture helps reduce the consumption of wild fish and mitigate the overexploitation of this vulnerable resource. Given the increasing global demand for seafood, overfishing has become a major environmental concern, with more than 70% of the world’s wild fish species either fully exploited or depleted. Properly managing the impacts of fish farming presents an easier, measurable, and more effective solution compared to controlling fisheries in the vast open ocean.

Aquaculture feed often consists of fish meal derived from catches of smaller fish that are typically discarded and not used for human consumption. Aquaculture producers also contribute to sea cleanup efforts, provide valuable fishery production data, and ensure the proper management of fisheries resources. Genetically modified fish are not produced in Greek aquaculture. Fish meal and fish oils are obtained from pelagic species caught in fishing grounds subject to an Approved Management Plan that protects endangered populations. These fish, with their high bone content, have little commercial value for human consumption but are vital for producing high-quality proteins and fish oils, not only for aquaculture but also for general animal husbandry.

Fish produced through aquaculture is usually a much cheaper source of protein than other types, as they contain significant nutrients for the organism. Produced locally, it improves food security in an area and constitutes a source of employment and income for the local community, thus impacting the social and human environment. They are among the most critically exportable Greek foods and drinks, both in terms of quantities and prospects, based on the growth of their exports in recent years, which is included in the wealth created by the Greeks. In this human-centric environment, it is worth noting that globally, seafood produced in this way represents 15 to 20% of the protein consumption of 2.9 billion people worldwide.

This fact enters into another environmental parameter, energy efficiency, which refers to the amount of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the use of raw materials. In terms of carbon emissions, the energy efficiency in the production of protein from aquaculture is much more effective, i.e., less polluting, than many other forms of protein production. This is referred to as the “feed conversion ratio” (FCR) and measures the amount of feed input compared to the weight gained by the animal. This ratio for beef ranges from 6:1 to 10:1, meaning that you need up to ten times the amount of feed to produce the equivalent amount of beef. The value is lower for pigs (2.7:1 – 5:1) and chickens (1.7:1 – 2:1).

However, for farmed fish, this ratio is often 1:1 or even lower because more alternative and efficient solutions are used, such as the utilization of fish processing by-products suitable for human consumption, by-products of fishing, and fish with low commercial value.

This fact relates to the reality of overfishing and the protection of marine resources. Considering that approximately 3 billion people on Earth rely on the sea as their primary source of protein (World Health Organization), aquaculture reduces the consumption of wild fish and the overexploitation of this extremely vulnerable resource. Overfishing is a major environmental problem, driven by the increasing global demand for fish. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), over 70% of the world’s wild fish species are either fully exploited or depleted. This disrupts ecosystems by removing predatory animals or prey from the oceans. According to the new fisheries policy, one-third of the fish we eat comes from illegal fishing. There are huge profits for states, uncontrolled destruction of fish stocks, and significant damage to legal fishermen.

Proper management of the impacts of aquaculture is an easier, measurable, and more effective way than controlling fishing in the vast open oceans. Fishmeal is fish feed made from many smaller fish that are discarded and not marketed to consumers. Additionally, during fish farming, fish farmers pay attention to the sea, clean it from plastic, and provide us with fishing/productive data.

In aquaculture, Genetically Modified Fish are not produced. Fishmeal and fish oil used in fish feed come from fish caught in fishing grounds that are subject to an Approved Management Plan for the protection of wild populations from depletion. These fishing grounds typically include certain species of pelagic fish, mainly harvested in the South Pacific and North Atlantic. These species form large populations, reproduce rapidly and in large numbers, grow quickly, and have a short lifespan. They have little commercial value due to the high bone content, which makes them unsuitable for human consumption.

They are harvested in large quantities and constitute a significant source of high-quality proteins and fish oil, not only for the needs of global aquaculture but also for animal production in general (livestock, poultry).


Area of organized aquaculture development (AOAD)

The Ministry of Environment and Energy and the Ministry of Agricultural Development and Food have identified Aquaculture Development Areas (ADAs), defined as “marine areas that meet specific characteristics for aquaculture development.” A key tool for implementing the Special Framework is the provision that AREAS OF ORGANIZED AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT (AOAD) are created within AOADs, which are organized marine areas where aquaculture units are located. The benefits are that through the rational management of water resources using environmentally friendly methods and techniques to ensure the sustainable development of the aquaculture sector, support is provided for actions and practices that improve the quality and healthiness of aquaculture products. For the implementation and proper functioning of AODAs, there is cooperation between the Ministries and local public and private entities of all activities to address aquaculture issues, train those employed in the sector, enhance their role and productivity, with the aim of strengthening the local economy.


Regarding the “seaspiracy” documentary

It is a fact that the documentary titled “Seaspiracy,” which has been airing on the Netflix platform for some time now, has sparked considerable discussion. However, this discussion does not concern Mediterranean aquaculture – particularly Greek aquaculture. Nevertheless, we consider it useful, with the assistance of specialized scientists from the Technical Committee of the Hellenic Aquaculture Producers Organization (HAPO), to clarify certain specific issues that have been raised in order to avoid creating erroneous impressions.

Much time has been devoted to the parasite “sea lice.” Simply put, it should be noted that this particular parasite does not infect the fish cultivated in the Mediterranean – and this certainly applies to fish in Greek aquaculture.

There has also been much discussion about the colorants in salmon fillets, specifically astaxanthin. It should be clarified that no colorant is used in Mediterranean aquaculture – certainly not in Greek aquaculture. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that astaxanthin, which belongs to a category of colorants known as carotenoids, is a structural component of fish organisms, and it is expected that a normal percentage would be detected as part of a relevant analysis.

Regarding the issue of the proportion of “wild fish” in fishmeal and fish oil used in fish feeds, things are also clear and very different from what was mentioned in the documentary: The contribution of wild-caught fish to fishmeal has gradually decreased and ranges between 2-4% of the fishmeal. The corresponding percentage in fish oil is even lower, between 0.18-0.36%. It should also be emphasized that despite these particularly low percentages, intensive scientific research is underway (in which Greek aquaculture actively participates) to replace them with alternative solutions based on algae or insect proteins.

The structural components of proteins are amino acids. In humans, 8 out of the 21 amino acids used in protein synthesis cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from food; for this reason, they are called essential or indispensable amino acids (EAAs). If a food contains all the essential amino acids, then it is considered to be of high biological value. Foods of high biological value include animal-derived foods such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese.

Similarly, proteins are essential components in the diet of fish, as these organisms cannot synthesize all amino acids but must obtain them from food.

Out of the 21 amino acids that make up proteins, ten are essential for fish. Fish require proteins in their diet for two reasons:

  • They provide essential amino acids that they cannot synthesize or synthesize at a rate lower than their metabolic needs.

  • They serve as a source of amino acids or provide sufficient nitrogen to enable them to synthesize amino acids.

Fishmeal is the ideal source of protein because it contains all the essential amino acids in the required quantities that fully satisfy the requirements of the fish. The required levels of amino acids in a diet (e.g., plant-based diets replacing animal-based ones) do not necessarily mean they are entirely available to the fish, as their digestibility is not always sufficient.

Τα λιπαρά οξέα είναι δομικά συστατικά των λιπιδίων. Το απαραίτητο λιπαρό οξύ οι άνθρωποι και άλλοι ζωντανοί οργανισμοί πρέπει να προσλαμβάνουν από την τροφή τους, επειδή απαιτείται για την καλή υγεία του σώματος και δεν μπορεί να το συνθέσουν από μόνοι τους.

Μόνο δύο λιπαρά οξέα είναι γνωστό ότι είναι απαραίτητα για τον άνθρωπο: το α-λινολενικό οξύ (ένα ω-3 λιπαρό οξύ) και το λινελαϊκό οξύ (ένα  ω-6 λιπαρό οξύ). Αυτά τα δύο δεν μπορούν να συντεθούν από τον άνθρωπο, επειδή οι άνθρωποι δεν διαθέτουν τα ένζυμα  που απαιτούνται για την παραγωγή τους ούτε μπορούν να αντικατασταθούν από οποιοδήποτε ω3 λιπαρό οξύ που βρίσκεται σε φυτικούς οργανισμούς.

Fish are the primary source of intake for omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which they obtain by consuming phytoplankton and large algae. Similarly, fish are unable to synthesize any fatty acids of the omega-6 and omega-3 series unless they are provided with some precursor substance in their diet. Additionally, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) are more easily digested (more volatile) than saturated fats (for example, fish oil rich in PUFAs is more digestible than sunflower oil rich in saturated fats).

Therefore, scientifically substantiated evidence suggests that excluding animal proteins from the diet of fish would lead to atrophy and increased mortality, which would be completely contrary to their well-being. For the same reasons, animal proteins are considered essential not only for fish but also for humans, especially for critical age groups such as growing children and the elderly.

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